The Goths, in their new settlement of the Ukraine, soon became masters of the northern coast of the Euxine: to the south of that inland sea were situated the soft and wealthy provinces of Asia Minor, which possessed all that could attract, and nothing that could resist, a barbarian conqueror.
The banks of the Borysthenes are only sixty miles distant from the narrow entrance of the peninsula of Crim Tartary, known to the ancients under the name of Chersonesus Taurica. It subsisted as an independent state from the time of the Peloponnesian war, was at last swallowed up by the ambition of Mithridates, and, with the rest of his dominions, sunk under the weight of the Roman arms. From the reign of Augustus, the kings Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] of Bosphorus were the humble, but not useless, allies of the empire.
By presents, by arms, and by a slight fortification drawn across the isthmus, they effectually guarded against the roving plunderers of Sarmatia the access of a country which, from its peculiar situation and convenient harbours, commanded the Euxine Sea and Asia Minor.
Domestic factions, and the fears or private interest of obscure usurpers who seized on the vacant throne, admitted the Goths into the heart of Bosphorus. With the acquisition of a superfluous waste of fertile soil, the conquerors obtained the command of a naval force sufficient to transport their armies to the coast of Asia. They were slight flat-bottomed barks framed of timber only, without the least mixture of iron, and occasionally covered with a shelving roof on the appearance of a tempest.
But the hopes of plunder had banished every idea of danger, and a natural fearlessness of temper supplied in their minds the more rational confidence which is the just result of knowledge and experience. Warriors of such a daring spirit must have often murmured against the cowardice of their guides, who required the strongest assurances of a settled calm before they would venture to embark, and would scarcely ever be Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] tempted to lose sight of the land.
Such, at least, is the practice of the modern Turks; and they are probably not inferior in the art of navigation to the ancient inhabitants of Bosphorus. The fleet of the Goths, leaving the coast of Circassia on the left hand, first appeared before Pityus, the utmost limits of the Roman provinces; a city provided with a convenient port, and fortified with a strong wall.
Here they met with a resistance more obstinate than they had reason to expect from the feeble garrison of a distant fortress. They were repulsed; and their disappointment seemed to diminish the terror of the Gothic name. As long as Successianus, an officer of superior rank and merit, defended that frontier, all their efforts were ineffectual: but, as soon as he was removed by Valerian to a more honourable but less important station, they resumed the attack of Pityus; and, by the destruction of that city, obliterated the memory of their former disgrace.
Circling round the eastern extremity of the Euxine Sea, the navigation from Pityus to Trebizond is about three hundred miles. Trebizond, celebrated in the retreat of the Ten Thousand as an ancient colony of Greeks, derived its wealth and splendour from the munificence of the emperor Hadrian, who had constructed an artificial port on a coast left destitute by nature Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] of secure harbours.
But there are not any advantages capable of supplying the absence of discipline and vigilance. The numerous garrison of Trebizond, dissolved in riot and luxury, disdained to guard their impregnable fortifications. The Goths soon discovered the supine negligence of the besieged, erected a lofty pile of fascines, ascended the walls in the silence of the night, and entered the defenceless city, sword in hand.
A general massacre of the people ensued, whilst the affrighted soldiers escaped through the opposite gates of the town. The most holy temples, and the most splendid edifices, were involved in a common destruction. The booty that fell into the hands of the Goths was immense: the wealth of the adjacent countries had been deposited in Trebizond, as in a secure place of refuge. The number of captives was incredible, as the victorious barbarians ranged without opposition through the extensive province of Pontus.
The robust youth of the sea coast were chained to the oar; and the Goths, satisfied with the success of their first naval expedition, returned in triumph to their new establishments in the kingdom of Bosphorus. The second expedition of the Goths was undertaken with greater powers of men and ships; but they steered a different course, and, disdaining the exhausted provinces of Pontus, followed the western coast of the Euxine, passed before the wide mouths of the Borysthenes, the Dniester, and the Danube, and, increasing their fleet by the capture of a great number of fishing barques, they approached the narrow outlet Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] through which the Euxine Sea pours its waters into the Mediterranean, and divides the continents of Europe and Asia.
The garrison of Chalcedon was encamped near the temple of Jupiter Urius, on a promontory that commanded the entrance of the strait: and so inconsiderable were the dreaded invasions of the barbarians, that this body of troops surpassed in number the Gothic army. But it was in numbers alone that they surpassed it. They deserted with precipitation their advantageous post, and abandoned the town of Chalcedon, most plentifully stored with arms and money, to the discretion of the conquerors. Whilst they hesitated whether they should prefer the sea or land, Europe or Asia, for the scene of their hostilities, a perfidious fugitive pointed out Nicomedia, once the capital of the kings of Bithynia, as a rich and easy conquest.
He guided the march, which was only sixty miles from the camp of Chalcedon, directed the resistless attack, and partook of the booty; for the Goths had learned sufficient policy to reward the traitor whom they detested. Three hundred years of peace, enjoyed by the soft inhabitants of Asia, had abolished the exercise of arms, and removed the apprehension of danger. The ancient walls were suffered to moulder away, and all the revenue of the most opulent cities was reserved for the construction of baths, temples, and theatres. When the city of Cyzicus withstood the utmost effort of Mithridates, it was distinguished by wise laws, a naval Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] power of two hundred galleys, and three arsenals, — of arms, of military engines, and of corn.
From the recent sack of Prusa, the Goths advanced within eighteen miles of the city, which they had devoted to destruction; but the ruin of Cyzicus was delayed by a fortunate accident. The season was rainy, and the lake Apolloniates, the reservoir of all the springs of Mount Olympus, rose to an uncommon height. The little river of Rhyndacus, which issues from the lake, swelled into a broad and rapid stream and stopped the progress of the Goths. Their retreat to the maritime city of Heraclea, where the fleet had probably been stationed, was attended by a long train of waggons laden with the spoils of Bithynia, and was marked by the flames of Nice and Nicomedia, which they wantonly burnt.
To navigate the Euxine before the month of May, or after that of September, is esteemed by the modern Turks the most unquestionable instance of rashness and folly. When we are informed that the third fleet, equipped by the Goths in the ports of Bosphorus, consisted of five hundred sail of ships, our ready imagination instantly computes and Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] multiplies the formidable armament; but, as we are assured by the judicious Strabo, that the piratical vessels used by the barbarians of Pontus and the Lesser Scythia, were not capable of containing more than twenty-five or thirty men, we may safely affirm that fifteen thousand warriors at the most embarked in this great expedition.
Impatient of the limits of the Euxine, they steered their destructive course from the Cimmerian to the Thracian Bosphorus. When they had almost gained the middle of the straits, they were suddenly driven back to the entrance of them; till a favourable wind, springing up the next day, carried them in a few hours into the placid sea, or rather lake, of the Propontis.
The assistance of captives and deserters must have been very necessary to pilot their vessels, and to direct their various incursions, as well on the coast of Greece as on that of Asia. But this exploit, whatever lustre it might shed on the declining age of Athens, served rather to irritate than to subdue the undaunted spirit of the Northern invaders. A general conflagration blazed out at the same time in every district of Greece. The rage of war, both by land and by sea, spread from the eastern point of Sunium to the western coast of Epirus.
The Goths had already advanced within sight of Italy, when the approach of such imminent danger awakened the indolent Gallienus from his dream of pleasure. The emperor appeared in arms; and his presence seems to have checked the ardour, and to have divided the strength, of the enemy.
Naulobatus, a chief of the Heruli, accepted an honourable capitulation, Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] entered with a large body of his countrymen into the service of Rome, and was invested with the ornaments of the consular dignity, which had never before been profaned by the hands of a barbarian. The wild attempt would have proved inevitable destruction, if the discord of the Roman generals had not opened to the barbarians the means of an escape. What remained of the voyage was a short and easy navigation. It may seem difficult to conceive how the original body of fifteen thousand warriors could sustain the losses and divisions of so bold an adventure.
But, as their numbers were gradually wasted by the sword, by shipwrecks, and by the influence of a warm climate, they were perpetually renewed by troops of banditti and deserters, who flocked to the standard of plunder, and by a crowd of fugitive slaves, often of German or Sarmatian extraction, who eagerly seized the glorious opportunity of freedom and Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] revenge. In these expeditions the Gothic nation claimed a superior share of honour and danger; but the tribes that fought under the Gothic banners are sometimes distinguished and sometimes confounded in the imperfect histories of that age; and, as the barbarian fleets seemed to issue from the mouth of the Tanais, the vague but familiar appellation of Scythians was frequently bestowed on the mixed multitude.
In the general calamities of mankind the death of an individual, however exalted, the ruin of an edifice, however famous, are passed over with careless inattention. Yet we cannot forget that the temple of Diana at Ephesus, after having risen with increasing splendour from seven repeated misfortunes, was finally burnt by the Goths in their third naval invasion. The arts of Greece and the wealth of Asia had conspired to erect that sacred and magnificent structure.
It was supported by an hundred and twenty-seven marble columns of the Ionic order; they were the gifts of devout monarchs, and each was sixty feet high. The altar was adorned with the masterly sculptures of Praxiteles, who had, perhaps, selected from the favourite legends of the place the birth of the divine children of Latona, the concealment of Apollo after the slaughter of the Cyclops, and the clemency of Bacchus to the vanquished Amazons.
The spreading arms of a Christian cross require a much greater breadth than the oblong temples of the Pagans; and the boldest artists of antiquity would have been startled at the proposal of raising in the air a dome of the size and proportions of the Pantheon. The temple of Diana was, however, admired as one of the wonders of the world. Successive empires, the Persian, the Macedonian, and the Roman, had revered its sanctity, and enriched its splendour.
Another circumstance is related of these invasions, which might deserve our notice were it not justly to be suspected as the fanciful conceit of a recent sophist. We are told that in the sack of Athens the Goths had collected all the libraries, and were on the point of setting fire to this funeral pile of Grecian learning, had not one of their chiefs, of more refined policy than his brethren, dissuaded them from the design, by the profound observation, that as long as the Greeks were addicted to the study of books they would never apply themselves to the exercise of arms.
In the most polite and powerful nations genius of every kind has displayed itself about the same period; and the age of science has generally been the age of military virtue and success. The new sovereigns of Persia, Artaxerxes and his son Sapor, had triumphed as we have already seen over the house of Arsaces. Of the many princes of that ancient race, Chosroes, king of Armenia, had alone preserved both his life and his independence.
He defended himself by the natural strength of his country; by the perpetual resort of fugitives and malcontents; by the alliance of the Romans; and, above all, by his own courage. The patriotic satraps of Armenia, who asserted the freedom and dignity of the crown, implored the protection of Rome in favour of Tiridates, the lawful heir. But the son of Chosroes was an infant, the allies were at a distance, and the Persian monarch advanced towards the frontier at the head of an irresistible force.
Young Tiridates, the future hope of his country, was saved by the fidelity of a servant, and Armenia continued above twenty-seven years a reluctant province of the great monarchy of Persia. Valerian flattered himself that the vigilance of his lieutenants would sufficiently provide for the safety of the Rhine and of the Danube; but he resolved, notwithstanding his advanced age, to march in person to the defence of Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] the Euphrates.
During his progress through Asia Minor, the naval enterprises of the Goths were suspended, and the afflicted province enjoyed a transient and fallacious calm. He passed the Euphrates, encountered the Persian monarch near the walls of Edessa, was vanquished, and taken prisoner by Sapor. The particulars of that great event are darkly and imperfectly represented; yet, by the glimmering light which is afforded us, we may discover a long series of imprudence, of error, and of deserved misfortunes on the side of the Roman emperor.
The licentious murmurs of the legions soon accused Valerian as the cause of their calamities; their seditious clamours demanded an instant capitulation. An immense sum of gold was offered to purchase the permission of a disgraceful retreat. But the Persian, conscious of his superiority, refused the money with disdain; and, detaining the deputies, advanced in order of battle to the foot of the Roman rampart, and insisted on a personal conference with the emperor.
Valerian was reduced to the necessity of entrusting Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] his life and dignity to the faith of an enemy. The interview ended as it was natural to expect. The emperor was made a prisoner, and his astonished troops laid down their arms. Cyriades, an obscure fugitive of Antioch, stained with every vice, was chosen to dishonour the Roman purple; and the will of the Persian victor could not fail of being ratified by the acclamations, however reluctant, of the captive army.
The Imperial slave was eager to secure the favour of his master by an act of treason to his native country. He conducted Sapor over the Euphrates, and, by the way of Chalcis, to the metropolis of the East. So rapid were the motions of the Persian cavalry, that, if we may credit a very judicious historian, the city of Antioch was surprised when the idle multitude was fondly gazing on the amusements of the theatre. The splendid buildings of Antioch, private as well as public, were either pillaged or destroyed; and the numerous inhabitants were put to the sword or led away into captivity.
Arrayed in his sacerdotal robes he appeared at the head of a great body of fanatic peasants, armed only with slings, and defended his god and his property from the sacrilegious hands of the followers of Zoroaster. Demosthenes commanded in the place, not so much by the commission of the emperor as in the voluntary defence of his country. This heroic chief escaped the power of a foe who might either have honoured or punished his obstinate valour; but many thousands of his fellow-citizens were involved in a general massacre, and Sapor is accused of treating his prisoners with wanton and unrelenting cruelty.
MAY 10, 1861.– Capture of Camp Jackson, near Saint Louis, Mo.
He despaired of making any permanent establishment in the empire, and sought only to leave behind him a wasted desert, whilst he transported into Persia the people and the treasures of the provinces. At a time when the East trembled at the name of Sapor, he received a present not unworthy of the greatest kings — a Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] long train of camels laden with the most rare and valuable merchandises.
The rich offering was accompanied with an epistle, respectful but not servile, from Odenathus, one of the noblest and most opulent senators of Palmyra. If he entertains a hope of mitigating his punishment, let him fall prostrate before the foot of our throne, with his hands bound behind his back. Should he hesitate, swift destruction shall be poured on his head, on his whole race, and on his country. He met Sapor; but he met him in arms. Infusing his own spirit into a little army collected from the villages of Syria, and the tents of the desert, he hovered round the Persian host, harassed their retreat, carried off part of the treasure, and, what was dearer than any treasure, several of the women of the Great King; who was at last obliged to repass the Euphrates with some marks of haste and confusion.
The voice of history, which is often little more than the organ of hatred or flattery, reproaches Sapor with a proud abuse of the rights of conquest. We are told that Valerian, in chains, but invested with the Imperial purple, was exposed to the multitude, a constant spectacle of fallen greatness; and that, whenever the Persian monarch mounted on horseback, he placed his foot on the neck of a Roman emperor.
Notwithstanding all the remonstrances of his allies, who repeatedly advised him to remember the vicissitude of fortune, to dread the returning power of Rome, and to make his illustrious captive the pledge of peace, not the object of insult, Sapor still remained inflexible. When Valerian sunk under the weight of shame and grief, his skin, stuffed with straw, and formed into the likeness of a human figure, was preserved for ages in the most celebrated temple of Persia; a more real monument of triumph than the fancied trophies of brass and marble so often erected by Roman vanity.
The letters still extant from the princes of the East to Sapor are manifest forgeries; nor is it natural to suppose that a jealous monarch should, even in the person of a rival, thus publicly degrade the majesty of kings. Whatever treatment the unfortunate Valerian might experience in Persia, it is at least certain that the only emperor of Rome who had ever fallen into the hands of the enemy languished away his life in hopeless captivity. The emperor Gallienus, who had long supported with impatience the censorial severity of his father and colleague, received the intelligence of his misfortunes with secret pleasure, Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] and avowed indifference.
In every art that he attempted his lively genius enabled him to succeed; and, as his genius was destitute of judgment, he attempted every art, except the important ones of war and government. He was a master of several curious but useless sciences, a ready orator, an elegant poet, a skilful gardener, an excellent cook, and most contemptible prince.
When the great emergencies of the state required his presence and attention, he was engaged in conversation with the philosopher Plotinus, wasting his time in trifling or licentious pleasures, preparing his initiation to the Grecian mysteries, or soliciting a place in the Areopagus of Athens. His profuse magnificence insulted the general poverty; the solemn ridicule of his triumphs impressed a deeper sense of the public disgrace. There were, however, a few short moments in the life of Gallienus when, exasperated by some recent injury, he suddenly appeared the intrepid soldier and the cruel tyrant; till, satiated with blood or fatigued by resistance, he insensibly sunk into the natural mildness and indolence of his character.
At a time when the reins of government were held with so loose a hand, it is not surprising that a crowd of usurpers should start up in every province of the empire, against the son of Valerian. It was probably some ingenious fancy, of comparing the thirty tyrants of Rome with the thirty tyrants of Athens, that induced the writers of the Augustan History to select that celebrated number, which has been gradually received into a popular appellation. What resemblance can we discover between a council of thirty persons, the united oppressors of a single city, and an uncertain list of independent rivals, who rose and fell in irregular succession through the extent of a vast empire?
Nor can the number of thirty be completed unless we include in the account the women and children who were honoured with the Imperial title. The Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] reign of Gallienus, distracted as it was, produced only nineteen pretenders to the throne: Cyriades, Macrianus, Balista, Odenathus, and Zenobia in the East; in Gaul and the western provinces, Posthumus, Lollianus, Victorinus and his mother Victoria, Marius, and Tetricus.
To illustrate the obscure monuments of the life and death of each individual would prove a laborious task, alike barren of instruction and amusement. We may content ourselves with investigating some general characters, that most strongly mark the condition of the times and the manners of the men, their pretensions, their motives, their fate, and the destructive consequences of their usurpation. It is sufficiently known that the odious appellation of Tyrant was often employed by the ancients to express the illegal seizure of supreme power, without any reference to the abuse of it.
Several of the pretenders who raised the standard of rebellion against the emperor Gallienus were shining models of virtue, and almost all possessed a considerable share of vigour and ability. Their merit had recommended them to the favour of Valerian, and gradually promoted them to the most important commands of the empire.
The generals who assumed the title of Augustus were either respected by their troops for their able conduct and severe discipline, or admired for valour and success in war, or beloved for frankness and generosity. The field of victory was often the scene of their election; and even the armourer Marius, the most contemptible of all the candidates for the purple, was distinguished however by intrepid courage, matchless strength, Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] and blunt honesty. In times of confusion every active genius finds the place assigned him by nature; in a general state of war military merit is the road to glory and to greatness.
Of the nineteen tyrants Tetricus only was a senator; Piso alone was a noble. The blood of Numa, through twenty-eight successive generations, ran in the veins of Calphurnius Piso, who, by female alliances, claimed a right of exhibiting in his house the images of Crassus and of the great Pompey. The personal qualities of Piso added new lustre to his race. The lieutenants of Valerian were grateful to the father, whom they esteemed. They disdained to serve the luxurious Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] indolence of his unworthy son.
The throne of the Roman world was unsupported by any principle of loyalty; and treason against such a prince might easily be considered as patriotism to the state. Yet, if we examine with candour the conduct of these usurpers, it will appear that they were much oftener driven into rebellion by their fears than urged to it by their ambition. They dreaded the cruel suspicions of Gallienus: they equally dreaded the capricious violence of their troops. If the dangerous favour of the army had imprudently declared them deserving of the purple, they were marked for sure destruction; and even prudence would counsel them to secure a short enjoyment of the empire, and rather to try the fortune of war than to expect the hand of an executioner.
When the clamour of the soldiers invested the reluctant victims with the ensigns of sovereign authority, they sometimes mourned in secret their approaching fate. The apprehensions of Saturninus were justified by the repeated experience of revolutions.
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Of the nineteen tyrants who started up under the reign of Gallienus, there was not one who enjoyed a life of peace, or a natural death. As soon as they were invested with the bloody purple, they inspired their adherents with the same fears and ambition which had occasioned their own revolt. Encompassed with domestic conspiracy, military sedition, and civil war, they trembled on the edge of precipices, in which, after a longer or shorter term of anxiety, they were inevitably lost.
These precarious monarchs received, however, such honours as the flattery of their respective armies and provinces could bestow; but their claim, founded on rebellion, could never obtain the sanction of law or history. Italy, Rome, and the senate constantly adhered to the cause of Gallienus, and he alone was considered Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] as the sovereign of the empire. That prince condescended indeed to acknowledge the victorious arms of Odenathus, who deserved the honourable distinction by the respectful conduct which he always maintained towards the son of Valerian.
With the general applause of the Romans and the consent of Gallienus, the senate conferred the title of Augustus on the brave Palmyrenian; and seemed to entrust him with the government of the East, which he already possessed, in so independent a manner, that, like a private succession, he bequeathed it to his illustrious widow Zenobia. The rapid and perpetual transitions from the cottage to the throne, and from the throne to the grave, might have amused an indifferent philosopher, were it possible for a philosopher to remain indifferent amidst the general calamities of human kind.
The election of these precarious emperors, their power and their death, were equally destructive to their subjects and adherents. The price of their fatal elevation was instantly discharged to the troops by an immense donative drawn from the bowels of the exhausted people. However virtuous was their character, however pure their intentions, they found themselves reduced to the hard necessity of supporting their usurpation by frequent acts of rapine and cruelty. When they fell, they involved armies and provinces in their fall. There is still extant a most savage mandate from Gallienus to one of his ministers, after the suppression of Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple in Illyricum.
The male sex of every age must be extirpated; provided that, in the execution of the children and old men, you can contrive means to save our reputation. Let every one die who has dropt an expression, who has entertained a thought, against me, Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] against me, the son of Valerian, the father and brother of so many princes.
I write to you with my own hand, and would inspire you with my own feelings. The bravest usurpers were compelled by the perplexity of their situation to conclude ignominious treaties with the common enemy, to purchase with oppressive tributes the neutrality or services of the barbarians, and to introduce hostile and independent nations into the heart of the Roman monarchy. Such were the barbarians, and such the tyrants, who, under the reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, dismembered the provinces, and reduced the empire to the lowest pitch of disgrace and ruin, from whence it seemed impossible that it should ever emerge.
As far as the barrenness of materials would permit, we have attempted to trace, with order and perspicuity, the general events of that calamitous period. There still remain some particular facts: I. The disorders of Sicily; II. The tumults of Alexandria; and III. The rebellion of the Isaurians — which may serve to reflect a strong light on the horrid picture. Whenever numerous troops of banditti, multiplied by success and impunity, publicly defy, instead of eluding, the justice of their country, we may safely infer that the excessive Edition: current; Page: [ 55 ] weakness of the government is felt and abused by the lowest ranks of the community.
The situation of Sicily preserved it from the barbarians; nor could the disarmed province have supported an usurper. The sufferings of that once flourishing and still fertile island were inflicted by baser hands. A licentious crowd of slaves and peasants reigned for a while over the plundered country, and renewed the memory of the servile wars of more ancient times. The foundation of Alexandria was a noble design, at once conceived and executed by the son of Philip.
The beautiful and regular form of that great city, second only to Rome itself, comprehended a circumference of fifteen miles; it was peopled by three hundred thousand free inhabitants, besides at least an equal number of slaves. Idleness was unknown. Some were employed in blowing of glass, others in weaving of linen, others again in a manufacturing the papyrus. Either sex, and every age, was engaged in the pursuits of industry, nor did even the blind or the lame want occupations suited to their condition.
The most trifling occasion, a transient scarcity of flesh or lentils, the neglect of an accustomed salutation, a mistake of precedency in the public baths, or even a religious dispute, were at any time sufficient to kindle a sedition among that vast multitude, whose resentments were furious and implacable. The spacious and magnificent district of Bruchion, with its palaces and museum, the residence of the kings and philosophers of Egypt, is described above a century afterwards, as already reduced to its present state of a dreary solitude.
The obscure rebellion of Trebellianus, who assumed the purple in Isauria, a petty province of Asia Minor, was attended with strange and memorable consequences. The pageant of royalty was soon destroyed by an officer of Gallienus; but his followers, despairing of mercy, resolved to shake off their allegiance, not only to the emperor but to the empire, and suddenly returned to the savage manners from which they had never perfectly been reclaimed. Their craggy rocks, a branch of the wide-extended Taurus, protected their Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] inaccessible retreat.
The tillage of some fertile valleys supplied them with necessaries, and a habit of rapine with the luxuries of life. In the heart of the Roman monarchy, the Isaurians long continued a nation of wild barbarians. Succeeding princes, unable to reduce them to obedience either by arms or policy, were compelled to acknowledge their weakness by surrounding the hostile and independent spot with a strong chain of fortifications, which often proved insufficient to restrain the incursions of these domestic foes.
The Isaurians, gradually extending their territory to the sea coast, subdued the western and mountainous part of Cilicia, formerly the nest of those daring pirates against whom the republic had once been obliged to exert its utmost force, under the conduct of the great Pompey. Our habits of thinking so fondly connect the order of the universe with the fate of man, that this gloomy period of history has been decorated with inundations, earthquakes, uncommon meteors, preternatural darkness, and a crowd of prodigies fictitious or exaggerated.
It was the inevitable consequence of rapine and oppression, which extirpated the produce of the present and the hope of future harvests. Famine is almost always followed by epidemical diseases, the effect of scanty and unwholesome food. Other causes must however have contributed to the furious plague which, from the year two hundred and fifty to the year two hundred and sixty-five, raged without interruption in every province, every city, and almost every family of the Roman empire. During some time five thousand persons died daily in Rome; and many towns that had escaped the hands of the barbarians were entirely depopulated.
We have the knowledge of a very curious circumstance, of some use perhaps in the melancholy calculation of human calamities. An exact register was kept at Alexandria of all the citizens entitled to receive the distribution of corn. It was found that the ancient number of those comprised between the ages of forty and seventy had been equal to the whole sum of claimants, from fourteen to fourscore years of age, who remained alive after the reign of Gallienus. Under the deplorable reigns of Valerian and Gallienus, the empire was oppressed and almost destroyed by the soldiers, the tyrants, and the barbarians.
It was saved by a series of great princes, who derived their obscure origin from the martial provinces of Illyricum. Within a period of about thirty years, Claudius, Aurelian, Probus, Diocletian, and his colleagues triumphed over the foreign and domestic enemies of the state, re-established, with the military discipline, the strength of the frontiers, and deserved the glorious title of Restorers of the Roman world. The removal of an effeminate tyrant made way for a succession of heroes.
The indignation of the people imputed all their calamities to Gallienus, and the far greater part were, indeed, the consequence of his dissolute manners and careless administration. He was even destitute of a sense of honour, which so frequently supplies the absence of public virtue; and, as long as he was permitted to enjoy the possession of Italy, a victory of the barbarians, the loss of a province, or the rebellion of a general seldom disturbed the tranquil course of his pleasures.
The emperor, provoked by the insult, and alarmed by the instant danger, Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] suddenly exerted that latent vigour which sometimes broke through the indolence of his temper. Forcing himself from the luxury of the palace, he appeared in arms at the head of his legions, and advanced beyond the Po to encounter his competitor.
The corrupted name of Pontirolo 1 still preserves the memory of a bridge over the Adda, which, during the action, must have proved an object of the utmost importance to both armies. The siege of that great city was immediately formed; the walls were battered with every engine in use among the ancients; and Aureolus, doubtful of his internal strength, and hopeless of foreign succours, already anticipated the fatal consequences of unsuccessful rebellion.
His last resource was an attempt to seduce the loyalty of the besiegers. He scattered libels through their camp, inviting the troops to desert an unworthy master, who sacrificed the public happiness to his luxury, and the lives of his most valuable subjects to the slightest suspicions. The arts of Aureolus diffused fears and discontent among the principal officers of his rival. At a late hour of the night, but while the emperor still protracted the pleasures of the table, an alarm was suddenly given that Aureolus, at the head of all Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] his forces, had made a desperate sally from the town; Gallienus, who was never deficient in personal bravery, started from his silken couch, and, without allowing himself time either to put on his armour or to assemble his guards, he mounted on horseback, and rode full speed towards the supposed place of the attack.
Encompassed by his declared or concealed enemies, he soon, amidst the nocturnal tumult, received a mortal dart from an uncertain hand. Before he expired, a patriotic sentiment rising in the mind of Gallienus induced him to name a deserving successor, and it was his last request that the Imperial ornaments should be delivered to Claudius, who then commanded a detached army in the neighbourhood of Pavia. The report at least was diligently propagated, and the order cheerfully obeyed by the conspirators, who had already agreed to place Claudius on the throne. They then ratified the election, and acknowledged the merit, of their new sovereign.
The obscurity which covered the origin of Claudius, though it was afterwards embellished by some flattering fictions, 4 sufficiently betrays the meanness of his birth. We can only discover that he was a native of one of the provinces bordering on the Danube; that his youth was spent in arms, and Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] that his modest valour attracted the favour and confidence of Decius.
The senate and people already considered him as an excellent officer, equal to the most important trusts; and censured the inattention of Valerian, who suffered him to remain in the subordinate station of a tribune. By his victories over the Goths, he deserved from the senate the honour of a statue and excited the jealous apprehensions of Gallienus. It was impossible that a soldier could esteem so dissolute a sovereign, nor is it easy to conceal a just contempt. Some unguarded expressions which dropped from Claudius were officiously transmitted to the royal ear.
As you regard your allegiance, use every means to appease his resentment, but conduct your negotiation with secrecy; let it not reach the knowledge of the Dacian troops; they are already provoked, and it might inflame their fury. I myself have sent him some presents: be it your care that he accept them with pleasure. Above all, let him not suspect that I am made acquainted with his imprudence.
The fear of my anger might urge him to desperate counsels. By such arts Gallienus softened the indignation, and dispelled the fears, of his Illyrian general; and during the remainder of that reign the formidable sword of Claudius was always drawn in the cause of a master whom he despised. At last, indeed, he received from the conspirators the bloody purple of Gallienus: but he had been absent from their camps and counsels; and, however he might applaud the deed, we may candidly presume that he was innocent of the knowledge of it.
The siege of Milan was still continued, and Aureolus soon discovered that the success of his artifices had only raised up a more determined adversary. He attempted to negotiate with Claudius a treaty of alliance and partition. The judgment of the army pronounced him worthy of death, and Claudius, after a feeble resistance, consented to the execution of the sentence. Nor was the zeal of the senate less ardent in the cause of their new sovereign.
They ratified, perhaps with a sincere transport of zeal, the election of Claudius; and, as his predecessor had shown himself the personal enemy of their order, they Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] exercised, under the name of justice, a severe revenge against his friends and family.
The senate was permitted to discharge the ungrateful office of punishment, and the emperor reserved for himself the pleasure and merit of obtaining by his intercession a general act of indemnity. Such ostentatious clemency discovers less of the real character of Claudius than a trifling circumstance in which he seems to have consulted only the dictates of his heart. The frequent rebellions of the provinces had involved almost every person in the guilt of treason, almost every estate in the case of confiscation; and Gallienus often displayed his liberality by distributing among his officers the property of his subjects.
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On the accession of Claudius, an old woman threw herself at his feet, and complained that a general of the late emperor had obtained an arbitrary grant of her patrimony. This general was Claudius himself, who had not entirely escaped the contagion of the times. The emperor blushed at the reproach, but deserved the confidence which she had reposed in his equity.
The confession of his fault was accompanied with immediate and ample restitution. In the arduous task which Claudius had undertaken, of restoring the empire to its ancient splendour, it was first necessary to revive among his troops a sense of order and obedience. With the authority of a veteran commander, he represented to them that the relaxation of discipline had introduced a long train of disorders, the effects of which were at length experienced by the soldiers themselves; that a people ruined by oppression, and indolent from despair, could no longer supply a numerous army with the means of luxury, or even of subsistence; that the danger of each individual had increased with the despotism of the military order, since princes who Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] tremble on the throne will guard their safety by the instant sacrifice of every obnoxious subject.
The emperor expatiated on the mischiefs of a lawless caprice which the soldiers could only gratify at the expense of their own blood, as their seditious elections had so frequently been followed by civil wars, which consumed the flower of the legions either in the field of battle or in the cruel abuse of victory. He painted in the most lively colours the exhausted state of the treasury, the desolation of the provinces, the disgrace of the Roman name, and the insolent triumph of rapacious barbarians.
It was against those barbarians, he declared, that the intended to point the first effort of their arms. Tetricus might reign for a while over the West, and even Zenobia might preserve the dominion of the East. The various nations of Germany and Sarmatia 12 who fought under the Gothic standard had already collected an armament more formidable than any which had yet issued from the Euxine. On the banks of the Dniester, one of the great rivers that discharge themselves into that sea, they constructed a fleet of two thousand, or even of six thousand vessels; 13 numbers which, however incredible they may seem, would have been insufficient to transport their pretended army of three hundred and twenty thousand barbarians.
Whatever Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] might be the real strength of the Goths, the vigour and success of the expedition were not adequate to the greatness of the preparations. In their passage through the Bosphorus, the unskilful pilots were overpowered by the violence of the current; and while the multitude of their ships were crowded in a narrow channel, many were dashed against each other, or against the shore. The barbarians made several descents on the coasts both of Europe and Asia; but the open country was already plundered, and they were repulsed with shame and loss from the fortified cities which they assaulted.
A spirit of discouragement and division arose in the fleet, and some of their chiefs sailed away towards the islands of Crete and Cyprus; but the main body, pursuing a more steady course, anchored at length near the foot of Mount Athos, and assaulted the city of Thessalonica, the wealthy capital of all the Macedonian provinces. Their attacks, in which they displayed a fierce but artless bravery, were soon interrupted by the rapid approach of Claudius, hastening to a scene of action that deserved the presence of a warlike prince at the head of the remaining powers of the empire.
Impatient for battle, the Goths immediately broke up their camp, relinquished the siege of Thessalonica, left their navy at the foot of Mount Athos, traversed the hills of Macedonia, and pressed forwards to engage the last defence of Italy. We still possess an original letter addressed by Claudius to the senate and people on this memorable occasion. If I vanquish them, your gratitude will reward my services. Should I fall, remember that I am the successor of Gallienus.
The whole republic is fatigued and exhausted. We shall fight after Valerian, after Ingenuus, Regillianus, Lollianus, Posthumus, Celsus, and a thousand others, whom a just contempt for Gallienus provoked into rebellion. We are in want of darts, of spears, and of shields. The strength of the empire, Gaul and Spain, are usurped by Tetricus, and Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] we blush to acknowledge that the archers of the East serve under the banners of Zenobia. Whatever we shall perform will be sufficiently great.
The event surpassed his own expectations and those of the world. By the most signal victories he delivered the empire from this host of barbarians, and was distinguished by posterity under the glorious appellation of the Gothic Claudius. The imperfect historians of an irregular war 15 do not enable us to describe the order and circumstances of his exploits; but, if we could be indulged in the illusion, we might distribute into three acts this memorable tragedy. The decisive battle was fought near Naissus, a city of Dardania. The legions at first gave way, oppressed by numbers, and dismayed by misfortunes.
Their ruin was inevitable, had not the abilities of their emperor prepared a seasonable relief. A large detachment, rising out of the secret and difficult passes of the mountains, which, by his order, they had occupied, suddenly assailed the rear of the victorious Goths. The favourable instant was improved by the activity of Claudius. He revived the courage of his troops, restored their ranks, and pressed the barbarians on every side. Fifty thousand men are reported to have been slain in the battle of Naissus. Several large bodies of barbarians, covering their retreat with a movable fortification of waggons, retired, or rather escaped, from the field of slaughter.
We may presume that some insurmountable difficulty, the fatigue, perhaps, or the disobedience, of the conquerors, prevented Claudius from completing in one day Edition: current; Page: [ 68 ] the destruction of the Goths. When the Romans suffered any loss, it was commonly occasioned by their own cowardice or rashness; but the superior talents of the emperor, his perfect knowledge of the country, and his judicious choice of measures as well as officers, assured on most occasions the success of his arms.
The immense booty, the fruit of so many victories, consisted for the greater part of cattle and slaves. A select body of the Gothic youth was received among the Imperial troops; the remainder was sold into servitude; and so considerable was the number of female captives, that every soldier obtained to his share two or three women. A circumstance from which we may conclude that the invaders entertained some designs of settlement as well as of plunder; since even in a naval expedition they were accompanied by their families.
The loss of their fleet, which was either taken or sunk, had intercepted the retreat of the Goths. On the return of spring, nothing appeared in arms except a hardy and desperate band, the remnant of that mighty host which had embarked at the mouth of the Dniester. The pestilence which swept away such numbers of the barbarians at length proved fatal to their conqueror. After a short but glorious reign of two years, Claudius expired at Sirmium, amidst the tears and acclamations of his subjects. In his last illness, he convened the principal officers of the state Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] and army, and in their presence recommended Aurelian, 16 one of his generals, 17 as the most deserving of the throne, and the best qualified to execute the great design which he himself had been permitted only to undertake.
The virtues of Claudius, his valour, affability, justice, and temperance, his love of fame and of his country, place him in that short list of emperors who added lustre to the Roman purple. Those virtues, however, were celebrated with peculiar zeal and complacency by the courtly writers of the age of Constantine, who was the great-grandson of Crispus, the elder brother of Claudius. The voice of flattery was soon taught to repeat that the gods, who so hastily had snatched Claudius from the earth, rewarded his merit and piety by the perpetual establishment of the empire in his family.
Notwithstanding these oracles, the greatness of the Flavian family a name which it had pleased them to assume was deferred above twenty years, and the elevation of Claudius occasioned the immediate ruin of his brother Quintilius, who possessed not sufficient moderation or courage to descend into the private station to which the patriotism of the late emperor had condemned him. Without delay or reflection, he assumed the purple at Aquileia, where he commanded a considerable force; and, though his reign lasted only seventeen days, he had time to obtain the sanction of the senate, and to experience a mutiny of the troops.
As soon as he was informed that the great army of the Danube had invested the well-known valour of Aurelian with Imperial power, he sunk under the fame and merit of his rival; and, ordering his veins to Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] be opened, prudently withdrew himself from the unequal contest. The general design of this work will not permit us minutely to relate the actions of every emperor after he ascended the throne, much less to deduce the various fortunes of his private life.
We shall only observe, that the father of Aurelian was a peasant of the territory of Sirmium, who occupied a small farm, the property of Aurelius, a rich senator. His warlike son enlisted in the troops as a common soldier, successively rose to the rank of a centurion, a tribune, the prefect of a legion, the inspector of the camp, 20 the general, or, as it was then called, the duke of a frontier; and at length, during the Gothic war, exercised the important office of commander-in-chief of the cavalry. In every station he distinguished himself by matchless valour, 21 rigid discipline, and successful conduct.
He was invested with the consulship by the emperor Valerian, who styles him, in the pompous language of that age, the deliverer of Illyricum, the restorer of Gaul, and the rival of the Scipios. At the recommendation of Valerian, a senator of the highest rank and merit, Ulpius Crinitus, whose blood was derived from the same source as that of Trajan, adopted the Pannonian peasant, gave him his daughter in Edition: current; Page: [ 71 ] marriage, and relieved with his ample fortune the honourable poverty which Aurelian had preserved inviolate. The reign of Aurelian lasted only four years and about nine months; but every instant of that short period was filled by some memorable achievement.
He put an end to the Gothic war, chastised the Germans who invaded Italy, recovered Gaul, Spain, and Britain out of the hands of Tetricus, and destroyed the proud monarchy which Zenobia had erected in the East on the ruins of the afflicted empire. It was the rigid attention of Aurelian even to the minutest articles of discipline which bestowed such uninterrupted success on his arms.
His military regulations are contained in a very concise epistle to one of his inferior officers, who is commanded to enforce them, as he wishes to become a tribune, or as he is desirous to live. Frank; by Sampson, Emma Speed - released Cohen, Ralph - released The Life and Letters of the Rev.
George Mortimer, M. Falls, Charles Buckles; by Hood, W. Wanted--A Match Maker illust. Janish, Jeanne R. Boehm, Anton Wilhelm; ed. Schaeffer, Charles Frederick - released The April Baby's Book of Tunes: with the story of how they came to be written illust. Greenaway, Kate - released Tabor - released Roman Stoicism: being lectures on the history of the Stoic philosophy with special reference to its development within the Roman Empire - Copyright cleared 5 Feb Haldeman-Julius, E mmanuel ; Bowden, E.
The Wonderful Adventures of Phra the Phoenician illust. Paget, Henry Marriott - Copyright cleared 25 Apr Novellen: Hausgenossen. Taylor, Samuel Harvey - released Saint, Lawrence B. Castleman, Justus Collins - released Selections from the Prose Works of Matthew Arnold ed. Johnson, William Savage - released The Dismal Swamp and Lake Drummond. Early recollections: Vivid portrayal of amusing scenes - released The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith - Copyright cleared 23 Nov Pax mundi: a concise account of the progress of the movement for peace by means of arbitration, neutralization, international law and Collins, E.
Dunne, M. Walter - released Chinnock, Edward James - released Epictetus: The Enchiridion by Epictetus; trans. Higginson, Thomas Wentworth - released Selections from Viri Romae ed. Agnes by Thomas a Kempis - released Munro, Ion S. King, Knowles; by Punshon, William Morley - released The pope, the kings and the people: a history of the movement to make the Pope governor of the world by a universal reconstruction of society from the issue of the Syllabus La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiar bene: Manuale pratico per le famiglie [Italian] - released Verotchka's Tales by Mamin-Siberiak, D.
Davidson, Ray - released Motor Boat Boys on the St. Lawrence: Solving the Mystery of the Thousand Islands - released Taylor, Edward Harrison; Hall, E. Raymond; Lane, H. Hall, E. Sanin [German] trans. Bugow, S. Uit het Land de Middernachtzon: Sprookjes [Dutch] trans. Honigh, C. East of the sun and west of the moon by Moe, Jorgen Engebretsen; illust.
Nielsen, Kay Ramus - released Bresemann, Friedrich; ed. Moe, Jorgen Engebretsen; by Tieck, Ludwig - released Tales from the Fjeld: A second series of popular tales trans. Dasent, Sir George Webbe - released A Son of the Sun illust. Fischer, Anton Otto; by London, Jack - released Veldener, Jan; in Baring-Gould, S. Behrend, Arthur C.
Perfumes and their Preparation: Containing complete directions for making handkerchief perfumes, smelling-salts, sachets, fumigating pastils; trans. Furst, Isidor - released Suomalaisen teatterin historia I: Teatterin esihistoria ja perustaminen [Finnish] - released Suomalaisen teatterin historia IV: Bergbomin loppukausi: Kansallisteatteri.
Babcock, E. Stopford, Francis; by Raemaekers, Louis - released Le roman bourgeois: Ouvrage comique [French] by Furetiere, Antoine; ed. Entretien d'un pere avec ses enfants [French] by Diderot, Denis - released Parasiten der Honigbiene: und die durch dieselben bedington Krankheiten dieses Insects [German] - released Aventures merveilleuses mais authentiques du capitaine Corcoran, deuxieme partie [French] illust.
Aventures merveilleuses mais authentiques du capitaine Corcoran, premire partie [French] - released La chasse aux lions [French] illust. Girardet, Jules; Bombled, Louis Charles - released A serious proposal to the Ladies, for the advancement of their true and greatest interest In Two Parts - released The Pilgrim Story: Being largely a compilation from the documents of Governor Bradford and Governor Winslow, severally and in collaboration Schreiber, Leo - released The Deipnosophists, or, the Banquet of the learned, Vol.
Yonge, Charles Duke - released The Deipnosophists; or, Banquet of the learned [Vol. Yonge, Charles Duke - Copyright cleared 31 Oct The Deipnosophists; or, Banquet of the learned Vol. Phillips, C. Coles - released A Rational Wages System: Some notes on the method of paying the worker a reward for efficiency in addition to wages - released Reincarnation and the Law of Karma: A study of the old-new world-doctrine of rebirth, and spiritual cause and effect - released A History of Persecution Bridges, Lt. Sir G. Judge Robert - Copyright cleared 3 May Overheard in Arcady by Bridges, Robert; illust.
Cameron of Lochiel trans. Roberts, Charles G. Edwards, Harry C. Auden, Harold Allden - released Auden, George Augustus - released Audubon and his Journals, Vol. Audubon's western journal: Being the MS. Hodder, Frank Heywood; contrib. Joseph in the Snow, and The Clockmaker: Vol. Wallace, Lady Grace Maxwell - released Juoseppi lumessa: eli onnettomuus vaihtelehtaa onneksi [Finnish] trans.
Costiander, Malakias - released Common Trees of Pennsylvania by Mickalitis, A. Francis, J. Smythe, James P. Confessions and Enchiridion by Saint Augustine, trans. Albert Cook Outler - Edition available 18 Dec Augustine's Soliloquies trans. Hargrove, Harvey Lee - released Moreau [French] by Saint Possidius Calamensis ; trans.
Moreau, L - Copyright cleared 20 Dec Writings in Connection with the Donatist Controversy trans. King, Rev. Dods, Marcus - released Kinkead, Thomas L. Monumentum Ancyranum: the deeds of Augustus ed. Fairley, William - Copyright cleared 22 Apr Journal of a visit to Constantinople and some of the Greek islands in the spring and summer of - released Mahony, Felix - released Bradbourne, Lord Edward; Coolidge, Susan - released Montolieu, Isabelle de - released Ylpeys ja ennakkoluulo [Finnish] illust.
Brock, Charles Edmund; trans. Joutsen, O. Gordon - released McNutt, Charles; Murphy, R.
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Horne, Charles Francis; Rudd, John - released A diary from Dixie by Chesnut, Mary Boykin; ed. Martin, Isabella D. A Virginia Girl in the Civil War, being a record of the actual experiences of the wife of a confederate officer - released Nocoes botanicas das especies de Nicociana mais usadas nas fabricas de tabaco, e da sua cultura [Portuguese] - released The unwritten history of old St. Augustine ed. Brooks, A. Eventful Narratives. Eastern Shame Girl and Others trans. DeMorant, George Soulie - released The rogues and vagabonds of Shakespeare's youth: Awdeley's Fraternitye of vacabondes and Harman's Caveat ed.
Viles, Edward; Furnivall, Frederick James - released The Fraternitye of Vacabondes ed. Hirvonen, S. Gibbs, George; Marchand, J. The Mentor: A little book for the guidance of such men and boys as would appear to advantage in the society of persons of the better sort - released The Verbalist: A Manual devoted to brief discussions of the right and the wrong use of words - released Griffis, Rev.
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Yonge, Charlotte M. Secrets of meat curing and sausage making: how to cure hams, shoulders, bacon, corned beef, etc. Neugesammelte Volkssagen aus dem Lande Baden: und den angrenzenden Gegenden [German] - released Zones of the Spirit: A Book of Thoughts trans. Field, Claud; by Strindberg, Johan August - released A terre et en l'air The Babur-nama in English Memoirs of Babur trans. Beveridge, Annette Susannah - released La Mara - released Adams, John Wolcott - released The Apology of the Church of England ed.
Morley, Henry; by Jewel, John; ed. Parker, Matthew - released Chincha Plain-weave cloths by Gemmer, C. Bacon's essays and Wisdom of the ancients contrib. Morley, Henry; contrib. Siam: The Land of the White Elephant as it was and is ed. Williams, Frederick Wells - released The Madness of Philip: and other tales of childhood illust.
Cory, Fanny Young Cooney - released The Lay of the Cid, translated into English Verse trans. Rose, R. Selden - released Allen, Nathan H. Elihu; ed. Scott, James Brown - released Oeffinger, R. Ambidexterity: or Two-handedness and Two-brainedness. A treatise on the esculent funguses of England: containing an account of their classical history, uses, characters, development, structure, nutritious properties, Currey, Frederick - released The Mediterranean: seaports and sea routes, including Madeira, the Canary Islands, the coast of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; handbook for travellers - Copyright cleared 16 Dec Cranmer-Byng, L.
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Baillie-Grohman, Florence; in Roosevelt, Theodore - released Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind, [2 Volumes] ed. Grote, George; by Mill, James; ed. Mill, John Stuart - released Aristotle by Grote, George; ed. Robertson, George Croom - released Gaye, Selina - released Gere, Charles March - released Housman, Laurence - released Jones, Adele W.
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Twidle, Arthur - released Jackson, M. Webb, Archibald - released Groome, William Henry Charles - released The Popham Colony: a discussion of its historical claims, with a bibliography of the subject by Kidder, Frederic; Poole, William Frederick - released The solution of the pyramid problem: or, pyramide discoveries with a new theory as to their ancient use - released The Pride of Palomar illust. Cornwell, Dean; by Kyne, Peter B. Profichet, Julienne - released Equatorial America: Descriptive of a Visit to St.
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Waring, James; Wormeley, Katharine Prescott - released Marriage, Ellen; Waring, James - released A Street of Paris and Its Inhabitant illust. Courboin, Francois; trans. Widger, David - released The Kadambari of Bana by Bhushanabhatta; trans.
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Ridding, Caroline Mary - released Memorial Address on the Life and Character of Abraham Lincoln: Delivered at the request of both houses of congress of america - released Gale, James Scarth; by Ryuk, Yi - released Neill, John R. Half-Hours with Jimmieboy illust. Mollie and the Unwiseman Abroad illust. Levering, Albert; Dwiggins, Clare Victor - released Munchausen: being a true account of some of the recent adventures beyond the Styx of the late Hieronyums Carl Friedrich, sometime Baron Munchausen of Bodenwerder illust.
Newell, Peter - released Levering, Albert - released Penfield, Edward - released XLI, pp. Andrews by Flint, Violet - released A short compendium of the catechism for the Indians: with the approbation of the Rt. The Secret of the Island by Verne, Jules; trans. Kingston, William Henry Giles - released The Engineer's Sketch-Book: of mechanical movements, devices, appliances, contrivances and details - released Byrne, Charles Alfred - released La Principessa Belgiojoso: Da memorie mondane inedite o rare e da archivi segreti di Stato [Italian] - released I Puritani di Scozia, Vol.
Ivanhoe: ossia Il ritorno del Crociato [Italian] illust. Viaggi di Gulliver nelle lontane regioni [Italian] by Swift, Jonathan; ed. Scott, Sir Walter - Copyright cleared 9 Nov Stanley, Henry Edward John - released Contos escolhidos de D. Antonio de Trueba [Portuguese] by Trueba, Antonio de; trans. Monteiro, F. A Morte de D. Le chien: son histoire, ses exploits, ses aventures [French] illust.
Pee-wee Harris F. Bridgeboro by Fitzhugh, Percy Keese - released Cupid En Route illust. Lincoln, F. Coughlin, John A. Relyea, Charles M. The Golden Heart illust. Underwood, Clarence F. Clinedinst, B. West - released Holly: The Romance of a Southern Girl illust. Bayha, Edwin F. Lady Laughter illust. On Your Mark! Life and Adventures of 'Billy' Dixon: A narrative in which is described many things relating to the early Southwest by Dixon, Billy - released The Orbis Pictus trans.
Hoole, Charles; by Comenius, John Amos - released The Ingoldsby Legends: or Mirth and Marvels illust. Cruikshank, George; Leech, John - released Bernardin de St. Pierre in Birrell, Augustine; trans. Gordon, James Edward - released Einstein, Lewis - released Veldener, Jan - released Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets: and other Old Testament chatacters from various sources - released Old Country Life illust. Sharp, Cecil James; by Bussell, F. Fleetwood - released The Mahatma Letters to A. Sinnett from the Mahatmas M.
H by Sinnett, A. Lankester, Sir E. Horrabin, J. Moses, Montrose Jonas - released Hand-Atlas of Human Anatomy: Vol. The Art of Angling: wherein are discovered many rare secrets, very necessary to be knowne by all that delight in that recreation - released Company G: A record of the services of one company of the th N. Elementary mathematical astronomy: with examples and examination papers by Bryan, Prof.
Fenn, L. Du Maurier, George; ed. Hammerton, Sir John; illust. Brunton, W. Frew, Robert - released The deserter, and other stories: A Book of Two Wars illust. Gaul, Gilbert William; by Frederic, Harold - released Chapman, Carlton T. Yankee Ships and Yankee Sailors: Tales of illust. Thomas Hardy - Suggested book to transcribe. A Christmas carol, or, The miser's warning! Edison, Thomas Alva; by David, Worton - released Clement Bailhache by Bailhache, Clement - released Tooker, Harriet H. Zeigler, Lee Woodward - released A correct and authentic narrative of the Indian war in Florida: with a description of Maj.
Dade's massacre, etc. Brock, Charles Edmund - released Buffon's Natural History. Indian Methodist hymn-book trans. Tate, Charles Montgomery; Crosby, Thomas - released Tres Comedias Modernas: en un acto y en prosa [Spanish] ed. Chautauqua Idyl by Hill, Grace Livingston; illust. Wings and the child: or, the building of magic cities by Nesbit, E.
Conception control: and its effects on the individual and the nation in Cantuar, Randall - released The admirable Lady Biddy Fane: her suprising curious adventures in strange parts - released Reminiscences, incidents, battles, marches and camp life of the old 4th Michigan Infantry in War of Rebellion, to - released Military Discipline: or, The young artillery man.
Wherein is discoursed and showne the postures both of musket and pike: the exactest ways, Napoleone: La vita italiana durante la Rivoluzione francese e l'Impero [Italian] - released Correspondence, between the late Commodore Stephen Decatur and Commodore James Barron: which led to the unfortunate meeting of the twenty-second of March by Decatur, Stephen - released Bounty: Its Causes and Consequences - released David; Pollard, Josephine; Milburn, Rev. William Henry - released Five Minute Stories illust.
McDermott, Jessie; by Sidney, Margaret - released Observations upon the town of Cromer considered as a Watering Place: and the Picturesque Scenery in its Neighbourhood - released Presidential Candidates: containing Sketches, Biographical, Personal and Political, of Prominent Candidates for the Presidency in - released The Web of the Golden Spider illust.
The Works of William Carleton, Vol. Flanery, M. American Scenery, Vol. American Scenery; Vol. Canadian Scenery, Vol. Conservation of marine birds of northern North America: papers from the international symposium held at the Seattle Hyatt House ed. Nettleship, David N. Stevens, Benjamin Franklin - Copyright cleared 10 Sep The Little Match Man illust. Longstreet, Hattie; trans.
Woodruff, Sarah Frances - released D - released Coppee, Francois - released Marie Bashkirtseff From Childhood to Girlhood trans. Safford, Mary J. Il pastor fido in lingua napolitana [Italian] by Guarini, Battista - released The modes of origin of lowest organisms: including a discussion of the experiments of M. Pasteur, and a reply to some statement - released Paillottet, Prosper - released What Is Free Trade?
Walter, Emile - released Prosas barbaras: com uma introd. Frank - released Memorandum to the Government of the United States on the recognition of the Ukrainian people's republic - released Bobbett, Walter - released Myrick, Frank - released Princo Vanc' [Esperanto] by Putnam, Eleanor; illust. Myrick, Frank; trans. Harris, Herbert - released Bates, Katharine Lee - released The Opening Heavens: or a connected view of the Testimony of the Prophets and Apostles - released A Vindication of the Seventh-Day Sabbath and the commandments of God: with a further history of God's peculiar people from to - released Romantic legends of Spain trans.
Ravenstein, Ernest George; Purchas, Samuel - released Food Adulteration and its Detection: With photomicrographic plates and a bibliographical appendix - released Naquet, A. Baudelaire: His Prose and Poetry contrib. Smith, Thomas Robert - released Poulet-Malassis, Auguste; illust. Nouvelles histoires extraordinaires [French] by Poe, Edgar Allan - released Huneker, James Gibbons - released LeRoy - released Captain Salt in Oz illust.
Martin, Dick; Neill, John R.
David's In-Progress List. Created: 3 Jul
Handy Mandy in Oz illust. La Mirinda Sorcxisto de Oz [Esperanto] trans. Broadribb, Donald Richard; illust. Denslow, William Wallace - released Wyckoff, Joseph W. Armstrong, Harry W. Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz illust. Thompson, Ruth Plumly - released The Silver Princess in Oz illust. Verbeck, Frank - released The Tin Woodman of Oz: A faithful story of the astonishing adventure undertaken by the tin woodman, assisted by Woot the Wanderer, theScarecrow of Oz illust. Enright, Maginel Wright - released The Wishing Horse of Oz illust.
Browne, Gordon Frederick - released Selver, Paul; ed. Playfair, Nigel - Copyright cleared 15 Jun Autour de la lune [French] illust. Le chien: son histoire, ses exploits, ses aventures [French] by Barbou, Alfred; illust. James's Day, Wednesday, July 23, - released Secrets of the Sword trans. Clay, Charles Felix; illust. Townsend, Frederick Henry - released Herbert, Robert Gaston - released Ensign Ralph Osborn: The story of his trials and triumps in a battleship's engine room illust.
Merrill, Frank T. The Canadian Horticulturist: Vol. Frank P. O'Brien by Beadle, Irwin; Beadle and company - released O'Brien by Beadle, Eratus; Beadle and company - released Beadle's Dime Book of Practical Etiquette for Ladies and Gentlemen: Being a guide to true gentility and good-breeding, and a complete directory to the Usages and Observances of Society - released Weird Tales Vol. Weird Tales, Vol. History of the World War, Vol. Thompson, Donald; by March, Francis Andrew, the younger; illust. Hare, James H. The Jolly Book of Boxcraft illust.
Pattee, Elsie Dodge; by North, G. Abraham Lincoln's cardinal traits: a study in ethics, with an epilogue addressed to theologians - released Bibliography of Oscar Wilde by Mason, Stuart; illust. Beerbohm, Sir Max - Copyright cleared 17 Sep Lucian's True History trans. Hickes, Francis; illust. Clark, Joseph Benwell; by Lucian of Samosata; illust. Strang, William - released Salome: A Tragedy in One Act trans. Douglas, Lord Alfred; by Wilde, Oscar - released Heroines of French society: in the court, the revolution, the empire and the restoration - released Bearne, Edward H.
Catherine Mary - released Officer during two and a half years at the Front - released The castles and abbeys of England: from the national records, early chronicles, and other standard authors illust. With a note on Sierra Leone, past and present - released Monseigneur Dupanloup ; illust. Rosseau, Emile; Rousseau, Morse - released Jeanne la fileuse: epiosode de l'emigration Franco-Canadienne aux Etats-Unis [French] - released Cronstedt, K. Le diable amoureux [French] ed. Waller, Alfred Rayney; by Fletcher, John - released Glover, Arnold; by Fletcher, John - released The Spanish Curate: A Comedy ed.
Glover, Arnold - released Glover, Arnold; by Fletcher, John; ed. Waller, Alfred Rayney - released Tube, Train, Tram. Sketches and tales illustrative of life in the backwoods of New Brunswick: Gleaned from actual observation and experience during a residence of seven years in that interesting colony - released Prestage, Edgar; by Zurara, Gomes Eanes de - released Prince Henry the Navigator, the hero of Portugal and of modern discovery, A.
Bernstein, Eduard - Copyright cleared 30 Aug The Gilded Chair: A novel illust. The Woman in the Alcove illust. Keller, Arthur Ignatius; by Lee, Jennette - released Der Ring [German] ed. Keller, Adelbert von; by Wittenweiler, Heinrich - released Richter, Ludwig Adrian - Copyright cleared 16 Sep Fraungruber, Hans; illust. Fahringer, Karl - released Fighting France trans.
Het tweevoudig verbond contra de drievoudige Entente: het wereldconflict als een rechtsgeding behandeld [Dutch] trans. Veer, Willem de - released Yamabe, S. Upton, George P. Medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine and toxicology, Vol. Witthaus, Rudolph August - released Claude A. Shepperson, in Charles E. Beckett - Suggested book to transcribe. Shorter Novels: Eighteenth Century ed. Griffith, John William; Francis, William; trans. Johnston, William - released