Reddish Scops-Owl Otus rufescens. White-bellied Woodpecker Dryocopus javensis. Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. Plain Flowerpecker Dicaeum minullum. Jerdon's Baza Aviceda jerdoni. House Swift Apus nipalensis. Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus sumatranus. Pacific Reef-Heron Egretta sacra. Rock Pigeon Columba livia. House Crow Corvus splendens. Black-sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum monticolum. Sunda Frogmouth Batrachostomus cornutus.
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Large-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus. Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris. Besra Accipiter virgatus. Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona. Red-crowned Barbet Psilopogon rafflesii.
Gray-and-buff Woodpecker Hemicircus concretus. Blue-banded Pitta Erythropitta arquata. Crested Shrikejay Platylophus galericulatus. Chestnut-naped Forktail Enicurus ruficapillus. Bornean Whistler Pachycephala hypoxantha. White-throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis. Mountain Wren-Babbler Turdinus crassus. Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus percussus. Little Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia ruficeps. Fulvous-chested Jungle-Flycatcher Cyornis olivaceus. Barred Eagle-Owl Bubo sumatranus. Bornean Barbet Psilopogon eximius. Mountain Barbet Psilopogon monticola. Golden-bellied Gerygone Gerygone sulphurea.
Bornean Bulbul Rubigula montis. Sunda Bush Warbler Horornis vulcanius. Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas. Bornean Leafbird Chloropsis kinabaluensis. Black-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus maximus. Germain's Swiftlet Aerodramus germani. Banded Woodpecker Chrysophlegma miniaceum. Pericrocotus sp. Black-throated Babbler Stachyris nigricollis.
Black-capped White-eye Zosterops atricapilla. Pygmy White-eye Oculocincta squamifrons. Malaysian Honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus. Rufous-tailed Shama Copsychus pyrropygus. Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus. Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher Cyornis ruficauda. White-crowned Hornbill Berenicornis comatus. Long-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera robusta. Rufous Night-Heron Nycticorax caledonicus. Striated Grassbird Megalurus palustris. Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis. White-bellied Munia Lonchura leucogastra. Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana. Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax.
Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus. Malaysian Plover Charadrius peronii. Little Tern Sternula albifrons. Mossy-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus salangana. Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus. Brown-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum everetti. Common Myna Acridotheres tristis. Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus. Red Junglefowl Domestic type Gallus gallus Domestic type.
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum. Nectariniidae sp. Blyth's Frogmouth Batrachostomus affinis. Sterninae sp. Red-breasted Partridge Arborophila hyperythra. Crimson-headed Partridge Haematortyx sanguiniceps. Whitehead's Trogon Harpactes whiteheadi. Whitehead's Broadbill Calyptomena whiteheadi. Blyth's Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius aeralatus. Bornean Stubtail Urosphena whiteheadi. Mountain Tailorbird Phyllergates cucullatus. Yellow-breasted Warbler Phylloscopus montis.
Mountain Black-eye Chlorocharis emiliae. Gray-throated Babbler Stachyris nigriceps. White-browed Shortwing Brachypteryx montana. Whitehead's Spiderhunter Arachnothera juliae. Orange-breasted Trogon Harpactes oreskios. Sunda Cuckooshrike Coracina larvata. Bare-headed Laughingthrush Garrulax calvus. Snowy-browed Flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra. Dark Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx bocki. Sunda Cuckoo Cuculus lepidus. Eyebrowed Jungle-Flycatcher Vauriella gularis. Temminck's Babbler Pellorneum pyrrogenys. Waterfall Swift Hydrochous gigas.
Apodidae sp. Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus. Psilopogon sp. Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus speciosus. Yellow-bellied Warbler Abroscopus superciliaris. Chloropsis sp. Collared Owlet Glaucidium brodiei. Pygmy Flycatcher Ficedula hodgsoni. Pied Imperial-Pigeon Ducula bicolor. Columbidae sp. Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala cinerea. Mangrove Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rufigastra. Fruit-hunter Chlamydochaera jefferyi. Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana.
Ashy Bulbul Hemixos flavala. Accipiter sp. Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus. Olive-backed Woodpecker Dinopium rafflesii. Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus. Common Flameback Dinopium javanense. Picidae sp. Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile. Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus. Orange-headed Thrush Geokichla citrina. Everett's Thrush Zoothera everetti. Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica. Mountain Serpent-Eagle Spilornis kinabaluensis. Bornean Swiftlet Collocalia dodgei. Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola.
Greater Sand-Plover Charadrius leschenaultii. Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus. Philippine Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia tenuirostris. White-tailed Flycatcher Cyornis concretus. Gray-capped Woodpecker Yungipicus canicapillus. Buff-vented Bulbul Iole crypta. Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus. Moustached Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx vagans. Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus.
Black-shouldered Kite Elanus axillaris. Wandering Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arcuata. Eurasian Moorhen Gallinula chloropus. Mountain Scops-Owl Otus spilocephalus. Cuculus sp. Accipitridae sp. Abbott's Babbler Turdinus abbotti.
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Eyebrowed Wren-Babbler Napothera epilepidota. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata. Australasian Grass-Owl Tyto longimembris. Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica. White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus. Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis. Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike Coracina striata.
Giant Pitta Hydrornis caeruleus. Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis. Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis. Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata. Blue-winged Pitta Pitta moluccensis. Black-collared Starling Gracupica nigricollis. Red Avadavat Amandava amandava. Chlidonias sp. Lesser Frigatebird Fregata ariel. Fregata sp.
Malaysian Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx fugax. Long-tailed Broadbill Psarisomus dalhousiae. Cyornis sp. Speckled Piculet Picumnus innominatus. Dicaeum sp. Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta. Friendly Bush Warbler Locustella accentor. Island Thrush Turdus poliocephalus. Treron sp. Collocalia sp. Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis. Psittaciformes sp. Arachnothera sp.
Gray Wagtail Motacilla cinerea. Passeriformes sp. Chestnut-cheeked Starling Agropsar philippensis. Tabon Scrubfowl Megapodius cumingii. Barred Rail Gallirallus torquatus. Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus thoracicus. Pacific Golden-Plover Pluvialis fulva. Gray Heron Ardea cinerea. Whatever certain information you Jordon O. Walter P. Jerdon O. Hello, all.. I have a GG Grma. Re: Parvins of New Jersey. I am of this line, and my mother told me her name was Louvenia, Levenia or Luvenia not sure o Jerden and Nancy Weldy were my great great grandparents. My new grandson 1 month old has been named Jerdon also!
My father is John Jr. I am working on a book fo London, Ontario. They had 9 children the eldest being William Arch Martin Holt. He was my great grandfather. The spelling of the name changes alot, Jourdon, Jorden, Jerdon and Jordan. My great-grandmother was Hazel Jordan possibly Jerdon according to birth records , she gave birth to her son Oscar Barnett in Breathitt County.
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I am looking for information regarding my great-grandmothers Frere was an admirer of the English postal reformer who had introduced the Penny Post ; the Scinde stamps became known as "Scinde Dawks". The volume of mail moved by the postal system increased doubling between and and doubling again by ; the Post Office Act XIV introduced reforms by 1 May to correct some of the more obvious postal-system deficiencies and abuses.
Postal-service efficiencies were introduced. In , lower rates were set for "steamer" mail to Europe at. Lower rates were introduced for inland mail. New regulations removed special postal privileges enjoyed by officials of the East India Company. Stamps for official use were prepared and accounted for, to combat abuses by officials. In Spain had printed special stamps for official communications, but in India was the first country to adopt the expedient of overprinting "Service" on postage stamps and "Service Postage" on revenue stamps; this innovation was widely adopted by other countries.
Shortages developed, so stamps had to be improvised; some "Service Postage" overprinted. New designs for the four-anna and six-anna-eight-pie stamps were issued in There was a shortage of stamps to meet the new rates. Provisional six-anna stamps were improvised by cutting the top and bottom from a current foreign-bill revenue stamp and over. For most of his life he lived and worked in England , illustrating a large number of the best-known ornithology books of the nineteenth century.
Keulemans was born in Rotterdam ; as a young man he collected animal specimens for museums such as the Natural History Museum in Leiden , whose director, Hermann Schlegel , encouraged Keulemans and sent him on the expedition to West Africa. In , he was persuaded by Richard Bowdler Sharpe to illustrate his Monograph of the Alcedinidae , or Family of Kingfishers and to move to England, where he lived for the rest of his life, he was married twice, had eight children by his first wife and seven children by his second wife.
Only nine of his children reached adulthood, he wrote topics on spirituality, claimed he had a premonition at the moment of death of one of his sons. He is buried in Buckingham Road cemetery, Ilford , in an unmarked grave. One of his last great achievements was his contribution of over one hundred plates for Frederick Du Cane Godman's Monograph of the Petrels, he spent some time collecting birds in Cape Verde and West Africa. Keulemans is credited with describing the Cape Verde swamp-warbler, Calamodyta brevipennis; this is a drab bird about 14—16 cm.
He did not publish an illustration of it, but his plate for Acrocephalus brunnescens in George Henderson's Lahore to Yarkand is similar, his notes and findings on the island of Principe, along with those of his colleague Dr. Dohrn, would become the basis for a description of a rare ibis , Lampribis rothschildi Bannerman. The only significant biography of Keulemans is by Jan Coldewey and Tony Keulemans, Feathers to Brush, a book that includes a bibliography of the artist's publications, a genealogical tree and appendices detailing his spiritualism , with a sample of his financial correspondence.
Of note is a contemporary obituary of Keulemans in the journal British Birds. Tony Keulemans wrote Beyond the grave, which tells the story of a remarkable discovery of a painting John Gerrard had made of his own gravestone, and Tony Keulemans wrote an errata list to Feathers to Brush, which includes additional literature references and new genealogical findings. Keulemans's work is characterised by its consistency, showing little change over the course of his career, focused to an extraordinary degree on the rendering of fine detail; these generalisations have proven to be the basis for unjustified criticism of his work, since the nature of scientific illustration places a premium on consistency.
Aside from this, a number of critics have rightly placed Keulemans above his contemporaries. Keulemans was prodigious in his output - he was commissioned to paint pictures of birds extensively throughout his career, his prints were published continuously from to Keulemans' first prints appeared in two books by Francois Pollen , Contributions a l'histoire naturelle des Lemuriens and Een blik in Madagascar ; some appeared after his death until A calculation of his total output gives about 4,, published illustrations; the vast majority of these were vignettes published within octavo-size books and publications, a great number of his works appeared in quarto and in folio.
While the subject of his illustrations was entirely avian, he was commissioned to create portraits of mammals and shells. Most of the illustrations by Keulemans were produced through traditional lithography , allowing for a finished product that depicts a vivid, lifelike figure through depth and tone. Printing was carried out by the two firms of Mintern and Hanhart, early in his career, some were printed by P.
The published lithographs were not coloured, some were not intended to be coloured. The technique of lithography made it necessary for the print to be coloured by hand; this was done by semi-skilled artisans working in an assembly line in a manner similar to stencilling. While Keulemans' talents as a draughtsman were hardly disputed by his contemporaries the finished, coloured plates were the subject of criticism.
If the depicted colours did not match those of the birds, the value of the finished product was diminished. Keulemans painted remarkable pictures of extinct birds, including Walter Rothschild's Avifauna of Laysan , Extinct Birds. Animal Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen , are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula , during embryonic development.
Over 1. Animals range in length from 8. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria , a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes , containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around million years ago. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in with his Systema Naturae , which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by In , Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa , single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa.
Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport. Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia.
In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism , the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria , which are prokaryotic , unlike protists , which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae , which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic , feeding on organic material and digesting it internally.
With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges , corals and barnacles become sessile ; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs. All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.
During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified , forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body.
There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis. These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm.
In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding.
In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results. Glareolidae Glareolidae is a family of birds in the wader suborder Charadrii. It contains the pratincoles and the coursers; the atypical Egyptian plover , traditionally placed in this family, is now known to be only distantly related.
The family contains 15 species in 5 genera; the feature that defines the family from the rest of the order is the bill, arched and has the nostrils at the base. The pratincoles long pointed wings and long forked tails, they have a buoyant flight that allows them the unusual hunting technique of taking their insect prey on the wing like swallows. The wings allow for long migrations in some species; the coursers have long legs, which are used to run giving the group its name.
The wings have a more sustained flight than that of the pratincoles; the pratincoles and coursers have an Old World distribution, occurring in southern Europe , Asia and Australia. The family is thought to have evolved in Africa, where the family achieves its greatest diversity, although fossils of the genus Glareola belonging to an extinct species Glareola neogena are known from the Middle Miocene of Europe, while of similar age is of the extinct Mioglareola gregaria from European deposits.
The fossil genera and species are: Boutersemia belgica G. Mayr and R. The subfamily is also associated with lowland areas, although the Burchell's courser is found in southern Africa's Afro-alpine areas; the pratincoles are associated with wetlands, rivers and other inland waterways. As with the coursers there are exceptions the black-winged pratincole which breeds and feeds on open steppes. Some species of pratincole are long-distance migrants. Shorter migrations include those of the Madagascan pratincole , which migrates from its breeding grounds in Madagascar to East Africa ; the migration, which can measure 10, km in distance, is undertaken as a single non-stop flight and is flown at high altitude.
The coursers are not migratory, although the cream-colored courser does migrate from the northern extremes of its range in the winter; the coursers are nomadic, but do not undertake long distance migrations. The coursers are crepuscular and nocturnal in their habits, are inconspicuous the woodland species, they are not as social as the gregarious and noisy pratincoles, some species of which may active at dawn and dusk. Insects form the majority of the diet of the Glareolidae; the pratincoles forage on the wing, but are able to take prey on the ground as well.
They are opportunistic, have been recorded attending herds of antelope to snatch insects flushed up by their movement, or insects attracted to street lights. Swarming insects, such as locusts or termites , are targeted. Coursers are terrestrial , feed in a plover-like fashion, running stopping to scan for prey before moving on; some species may dig for insects in soft soil with their bills. In addition to insects, coursers may take molluscs and some seeds.
Sometimes referred to as the " Birdman of India ", Salim Ali was the first Indian to conduct systematic bird surveys across India and wrote several bird books that popularized ornithology in India, he became a key figure behind the Bombay Natural History Society after and used his personal influence to garner government support for the organisation, create the Bharatpur bird sanctuary and prevent the destruction of what is now the Silent Valley National Park.
Along with Sidney Dillon Ripley he wrote the landmark ten volume Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan , a second edition of, completed after his death, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan in and the Padma Vibhushan in , India's third and second highest civilian honours respectively. Several species of birds, a couple of bird sanctuaries and institutions have been named after him. His father died when he was a year old and his mother Zeenat-un-nissa died when he was three. Along with his siblings, Ali was brought up by his maternal uncle, Amiruddin Tyabji, childless aunt, Hamida Begum, in a middle-class household in Khetwadi, Mumbai.
Another uncle was a well known Indian freedom fighter. Ali's early interest was in books on hunting in India and he became the most interested in sport-shooting, encouraged by his foster-father Amiruddin. Shooting contests were held in the neighbourhood in which he grew and his playmates included Iskandar Mirza , a distant cousin, a good marksman and went on in life to become the first President of Pakistan. Salim was introduced to the serious study of birds by W. Millard , secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society where Amiruddin was a member, who identified an unusually coloured sparrow that young Salim had shot for sport with his toy air gun.
Millard identified it as a yellow-throated sparrow, showed Salim around the Society's collection of stuffed birds. Millard lent Salim a few books including Eha's Common birds of Bombay, encouraged Salim to make a collection of birds and offered to train him in skinning and preservation. In his autobiography, The Fall of a Sparrow, Ali notes the yellow-throated sparrow event as a turning point in his life, one that led him into ornithology, an unusual career choice for an Indian in those days.
At around 10 years of age, he maintained a diary and among his earliest bird notes were observations on the replacement of the males in paired hen sparrows after he shot down the males, he noted that the male partner of a female sparrow was replaced soon after he had shot the previous male. Xavier's College, Bombay. Around the age of 13 he suffered from chronic headaches. He was sent to Sind to stay with an uncle who had suggested that the dry air might help and on returning after such breaks in studies, he managed to pass the matriculation exam of the Bombay University in Salim Ali's early education was at Mumbai.
Following a difficult first year in college, he dropped out and went to Tavoy , Burma to look after the family's wolfram mining and timber interests there; the forests surrounding this area provided an opportunity for Ali to hone his naturalist skills. On his return to India in , he decided to continue formal studies, he went to study commercial law and accountancy at Davar's College of Commerce but his true interest was noticed by Father Ethelbert Blatter at St.
Xavier's College who persuaded Ali to study zoology. After attending morning classes at Davar's College, he began to attend zoology classes at St. Xavier's College and was able to complete the course in zoology. Around the same time, he married Tehmina, a distant relative, in December Ali was fascinated by motorcycles from an early age and starting with a 3. On invitation to the International Ornithological Congress at Uppsala in Sweden he shipped his Sunbeam aboard the SS Stratheden from Bombay and biked around Europe , injuring himself in a minor mishap in France apart from having several falls on cobbled roads in Germany ; when he arrived on a loaded bike, just in time for the first session at Uppsala, word went around that he had ridden all the way from India!
He regretted not having owned a BMW.