Christianity After Auschwitz: Evangelicals Encounter Judaism In The New Millennium

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Wechsler Day of Judaism Andreas R. Should anyone? Donahue, S. Rosann M. Norbert Hofmann, S. Hofmann, S. Pawlikowski, OSM, Rev. Christopher P. Philip A. Boys, Philip A. Cunningham, and John T.

Christianity after Auschwitz : evangelicals encounter Judaism in the new millennium

Bieringer, D. Pollefeyt, F. Felix Just, S. Henry R. Allan R. Bass, Ph. Julie A. Mark D. Marans Vol. Settled Questions and New Directions in Research. Robert A. Cunningham, Mark D. Visotzky A Catholic Theology of the Land? Thomas H. Tobin, S. Harrington, S. Dennert Vol. Stegman S. Kessler and Philip A. The key to this understanding is the "seventy weeks prophecy" in the book of Daniel. The Prophecy of Seventy Septets or literally 'seventy times seven' appears in the angel Gabriel 's reply to Daniel, beginning with verse 22 and ending with verse 27 in the ninth chapter of the Book of Daniel , [52] a work included in both the Jewish Tanakh and the Christian Bible ; as well as the Septuagint.

The prophet has a vision of the angel Gabriel, who tells him, "Seventy weeks are determined for your people and for your holy city i. The first sixty-nine weeks are interpreted as covering the period until Christ's first coming, but the last week is thought to represent the years of the tribulation which will come at the end of this age, directly preceding the millennial age of peace:. This is an obscure prophecy, but in combination with other passages, it has been interpreted to mean that the "prince who is to come" will make a seven-year covenant with Israel that will allow the rebuilding of the temple and the reinstitution of sacrifices, but "in the middle of the week", he will break the agreement and set up an idol of himself in the temple and force people to worship it—the "abomination of desolation".

Paul writes:. The rapture is an eschatological term used by certain Christians, particularly within branches of North American evangelicalism , referring to an end time event when all Christian believers — living and dead — will rise into Heaven and join Christ. Though it has been used differently in the past, the term is now often used by certain believers to distinguish this particular event from the Second Coming of Jesus Christ to Earth mentioned in Second Thessalonians , Gospel of Matthew , First Corinthians , and Revelation , usually viewing it as preceding the Second Coming and followed by a thousand-year millennial kingdom.

The term "rapture" is especially useful in discussing or disputing the exact timing or the scope of the event, particularly when asserting the "pre-tribulation" view that the rapture will occur before, not during, the Second Coming, with or without an extended Tribulation period. There are differing views among Christians regarding the timing of Christ's return, such as whether it will occur in one event or two, and the meaning of the aerial gathering described in 1 Thessalonians 4. Many Christians do not subscribe to rapture-oriented theological views.

Though the term "rapture" is derived from the text of the Latin Vulgate of 1 Thess. Pre-tribulation rapture theology originated in the eighteenth century, with the Puritan preachers Increase and Cotton Mather , and was popularized extensively in the s by John Nelson Darby [65] [66] and the Plymouth Brethren , [67] and further in the United States by the wide circulation of the Scofield Reference Bible in the early 20th century.

In Matthew 24 Jesus states:. These false Christs will perform great signs and are no ordinary people "For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also transform themselves into ministers of righteousness, whose end will be according to their works.

After Jesus meets his followers "in the air", the marriage of the Lamb takes place: "Let us be glad and rejoice and give him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready.


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And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. His "wife" appears to represent the people of God, for she is dressed in the "righteous acts of the saints". As the marriage takes place, there is a great celebration in heaven which involves a "great multitude. The word resurrection comes from the Latin resurrectus, which is the past participle of resurgere, meaning to rise again. Although the doctrine of the resurrection comes to the forefront in the New Testament, it predates the Christian era.

There is an apparent reference to the resurrection in the book of Job, where Job says, "I know that my redeemer lives, and that he will stand at the latter day upon the earth. And though Together with my dead body, they will arise. Awake and sing, you who dwell in dust, for your dew is like the dew of herbs, and the earth will cast out the dead". This belief was still common among the Jews in New Testament times, as exemplified by the passage which relates the raising of Lazarus from the dead. When Jesus told Lazarus' sister, Martha, that Lazarus would rise again, she replied, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.

An interpretation of the New Testament is the understanding that there will be two resurrections. Revelation says: "Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over such, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him a thousand years. The Gospel authors wrote that our resurrection bodies will be different from those we have now. Jesus said, "In the resurrection, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like the angels of God in heaven.

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church the body after resurrection is changed into a spiritual, imperishable body:. So, in him, "all of them will rise again with their own bodies which they now bear," but Christ "will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body," into a "spiritual body" [] [78]. In some ancient traditions, it was held that the person would be resurrected at the same spot they died and were buried at just as in the case of Jesus' resurrection.

For example, in the early medieval biography of St Columba written by Adomnan of Iona , Columba at one point prophecies to a penitent at the monastery on Iona that his resurrection would be in Ireland and not in Iona, and this penitent later died at a monastery in Ireland and was buried there [79]. Although Martin Luther personally believed and taught resurrection of the dead in combination with soul sleep , this is not a mainstream teaching of Lutheranism and most Lutherans traditionally believe in resurrection of the body in combination with the immortal soul.

Several churches, such as the Anabaptists and Socinians of the Reformation, then Seventh-day Adventist Church , Christadelphians , Jehovah's Witnesses , and theologians of different traditions reject the idea of the immortality of a non-physical soul as a vestige of Neoplatonism , and other pagan traditions.

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In this school of thought, the dead remain dead and do not immediately progress to a Heaven , Hell , or Purgatory until a physical resurrection of some or all of the dead occurs at the end of time. Some groups, Christadelphians in particular, consider that it is not a universal resurrection , and that at this time of resurrection that the Last Judgment will take place.

Megiddo is mentioned twelve times in the Old Testament , ten times in reference to the ancient city of Megiddo , and twice with reference to "the plain of Megiddo", most probably simply meaning "the plain next to the city". The one New Testament reference to the city of Armageddon found in Revelation also makes no specific mention of any armies being predicted to one day gather in this city, but instead seems to predict only that "they will gather the kings together to Because of the seemingly highly symbolic and even cryptic language of this one New Testament passage, some Christian scholars conclude that Mount Armageddon must be an idealized location.

Rushdoony says, "There are no mountains of Megiddo, only the Plains of Megiddo. This is a deliberate destruction of the vision of any literal reference to the place. Thus, "Armageddon" would mean "Mountain of Assembly," which Jordan says is "a reference to the assembly at Mount Sinai, and to its replacement, Mount Zion. The traditional viewpoint interprets this Bible prophecy to be symbolic of the progression of the world toward the "great day of God, the Almighty" in which the great looming mountain of God's just and holy wrath is poured out against unrepentant sinners, led by Satan, in a literal end-of-the-world final confrontation.

Armageddon is the symbolic name given to this event based on scripture references regarding divine obliteration of God's enemies. The hermeneutical method supports this position by referencing Judges 4 and 5 where God miraculously destroys the enemy of His elect, Israel, at Megiddo, also called the Valley of Josaphat.

Christian scholar William Hendriksen says:. For this cause, Har Magedon is the symbol of every battle in which, when the need is greatest and believers are oppressed, the Lord suddenly reveals His power in the interest of His distressed people and defeats the enemy. When Sennacherib's , are slain by the Angel of Jehovah, that is a shadow of the final Har-Magedon. When God grants a little handful of Maccabees a glorious victory over an enemy which far outnumbers it, that is a type of Har-Magedon. Then the world, under the leadership of Satan, anti-Christian government, and anti-Christian religion — the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet — is gathered against the Church for the final battle, and the need is greatest; when God's children, oppressed on every side, cry for help; then suddenly, Christ will appear on the clouds of glory to deliver his people; that is Har-Magedon.

Millennialism from millennium , Latin for "a thousand years" , or chiliasm from the Greek equivalent , is the belief that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth prior to the final judgment and future eternal state of the " World to Come ". Christian millennialism developed out of a Christian interpretation of Jewish apocalypticism. Christian millennialist thinking is primarily based upon the Book of Revelation, specifically , [ citation needed ] which describes the vision of an angel who descended from heaven with a large chain and a key to a bottomless pit, and captured Satan, imprisoning him for a thousand years:.

He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years and threw him into the pit and locked and sealed it over him, so that he would deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were ended. After that, he must be let out for a little while. The Book of Revelation then describes a series of judges who are seated on thrones, as well as his vision of the souls of those who were beheaded for their testimony in favor of Jesus and their rejection of the mark of the beast.

These souls:. The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy are those who share in the first resurrection. Over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him a thousand years. Thus, Revelation characterizes a millennium where Christ and the Father will rule over a theocracy of the righteous.

While there are an abundance of biblical references to such a kingdom of God throughout the Old and New Testaments, this is the only reference in the Bible to such a period lasting one thousand years. The literal belief in a thousand-year reign of Christ is a later development in Christianity, as it does not seem to have been present in first century texts. According to the Bible, the Millennial age of peace all but closes the history of planet Earth. However, the story is not yet finished: "When the thousand years have expired, Satan will be released from his prison and will go out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle, whose number is as the sand of the sea.

There is continuing discussion over the identity of Gog and Magog. In the context of the passage, they seem to equate to something like "east and west". There is a passage in Ezekiel, however, where God says to the prophet, "Set your face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy against him. Ezekiel says of him: "You will ascend, coming like a storm, covering the land like a cloud, you and all your troops and many peoples with you Despite this huge show of force, the battle will be short-lived, for Ezekiel, Daniel, and Revelation all say that this last desperate attempt to destroy the people and the city of God will end in disaster: "I will bring him to judgment with pestilence and bloodshed.

I will rain down on him and on his troops, and on the many peoples who are with him: flooding rain, great hailstones, fire and brimstone. Following the defeat of Gog, the last judgment begins: "The devil, who deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet are, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. Following Satan's consignment to the lake of fire, his followers come up for judgment. This is the "second resurrection", and all those who were not a part of the first resurrection at the coming of Christ now rise up for judgment:.

I saw a great white throne and him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away, and there was found no place for them. And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. And Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire. John had earlier written, "Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection.

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Over such the second death has no power. Due to the description of the seat upon which the Lord sits, this final judgment is often referred to as the Great White Throne Judgment. A decisive factor in the Last Judgement will be the question, if the corporal works of mercy were practiced or not during lifetime. They rate as important acts of charity.

Therefore, and according to the biblical sources Mt , the conjunction of the Last Judgement and the works of mercy is very frequent in the pictorial tradition of Christian art. But, in accordance with his promise , we wait for new heavens and a new earth, where righteousness is at home 2 Peter The basic difference with the promises of the Old Testament is that in Revelation they also have an ontological value Rev ;4 : "Then I saw 'a new heaven and a new earth,' for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea The focus turns to one city in particular, the New Jerusalem.

Once again, we see the imagery of the marriage: "I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. Nor is there a need for the sun to give its light, "for the glory of God illuminated it, and the Lamb is its light". There will be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying; and there will be no more pain, for the former things have passed away. The city itself has a large wall with twelve gates in it which are never shut, and which have the names of the twelve tribes of Israel written on them.

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Each of the gates is made of a single pearl, and there is an angel standing in each one. The wall also has twelve foundations which are adorned with precious stones, and upon the foundations are written the names of the twelve apostles. The gates and foundations are often interpreted [ who? The city and its streets are pure gold, but not like the gold we know, for this gold is described as being like clear glass.

The city is square in shape, and is twelve thousand furlongs long and wide fifteen hundred miles. If these are comparable to earthly measurements, the city will cover an area about half the size of the contiguous United States. The height is the same as the length and breadth, and although this has led most people to conclude that it is shaped like a cube, it could also be a pyramid.

The city has a river which proceeds "out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. The last time we saw the tree of life was in the Garden of Eden. Genesis says that the earth was cursed because of Adam's sin, [Gen ] but the author of John writes that in the New Jerusalem, "there will be no more curse. The Evangelical Dictionary of Theology Baker, says:. The rich symbolism reaches beyond our finest imaginings, not only to the beatific vision but to a renewed, joyous, industrious, orderly, holy, loving, eternal, and abundant existence.

Perhaps the most moving element in the description is what is missing: there is no temple in the New Jerusalem, 'because the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Christian eschatology Eschatological views Contrasting beliefs. The Millennium. Biblical texts. Key terms. Maitreya Three Ages. Olivet Discourse Sheep and Goats. Four Horsemen Antichrist.

Historicism Futurism. Second Coming Islamic eschatology. Kalki Kali Yuga Shiva. Death Resurrection Last Judgement. Messianism Book of Daniel Kabbalah. Li Hong. Frashokereti Saoshyant. End times Apocalypticism. Millenarianism Last Judgment. Gog and Magog Messianic Age. See also: Christian eschatological views. Main article: Premillennialism. Main article: Pretribulationism. Main article: Midtribulationism. Main article: Post-Tribulation Rapture.

Main article: Postmillennialism. Main article: Amillennialism. See also: Second Temple Judaism. Main article: Intermediate state. Main article: Purgatory. Main article: Great Tribulation. Main article: Abomination of desolation. Main article: Prophecy of Seventy Weeks. Main article: Rapture. Main article: Second Coming. See also: Maranatha. See also: Lamb of God. This section possibly contains original research.

Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Armageddon. Main article: Millennialism. Main article: Last Judgment.

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Main article: New Jerusalem. Main article: Tree of life biblical. Christianity portal. Translated by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. Cleveland Coxe. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, The writings of Ignatius and Justin Martyr can be found in Vol. Eerdmans; Brill, — , London: Banner of Truth Trust. Blaising; Darrell L. Bock, eds. Progressive Dispensationalism. Baker Books. November Studies in World Christianity.

In Gunton, Colin E. The Cambridge Companion to Christian Doctrine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Luis de Alcazar of Seville, Spain, devised what became known as the 'preterist' system of prophetic interpretation. This theory proposed that the Revelation deals with events in the Pagan Roman Empire, that antichrist refers to Nero and that the prophecies were therefore fulfilled long before the time of the medieval church. Alcazar's preterist system has never made any impact on the conservative, or evangelical wing of the Protestant movement, although in the last one hundred years it has become popular among Protestant rationalists and liberals.

A far more successful attack was taken by Francisco Ribera - of Salamanca, Spain. He was the founder of the 'futurist' system of prophetic interpretation. Instead of placing antichrist way in the past as did Alcazar, Ribera argues that antichrist would appear way in the future. About Ribera published a five hundred page commentary on the Apocalypse, denying the Protestant application of antichrist to the church of Rome. Moser, Jr. Joseph Tanner, Daniel and the Revelation, pp.

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Horae Apocalypticae. IV 5th ed. London: Seely, Jackson and Halliday. Bell Alpha Books. Macey , p. Exeter: Imprint Academic. Erickson , p. I 5th ed. Before Jerusalem Fell. Retrieved 8 August An Introduction to the Study of the New Testament. Oxford: University Press. II part 2 The Synoptic Gospels — 2. Wright , Jesus and the Victory of God, Fortress , p. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, Journal of Higher Criticism. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Daniel" PDF. Presbyterian Publishing Corporation. Retrieved 26 December Encyclopaedic dictionary of religion: Q-Z.

Delhi: Isha Books. Retrieved 6 April Daniel; Duvall, J. Scott; Pate, C. Marvin Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. Michael D. Guinan, "Raptured or Not? However, for many American fundamentalist Christians, "the Rapture forms part of the scenario of events that will happen at the end of the world Drawing on all my years of Catholic education kindergarten through the seminary and doctoral studies , I replied, 'The what? Schwertley, "Is the Pretribulation Rapture Biblical? Ian S. Vague notions had been considered by the Puritan preachers Increase and Cotton Mather , and the late 18th-century Baptist minister Morgan Edwards, but it was John Nelson Darby who solidified the belief in the s and placed it into a larger theological framework.

Wheaton, IL: Bridgepoint Books. Pages , The Amazing Facts Media Library. Augustine Chapter 6.


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